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January 16, 2015

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Immune response to dietary proteins, gliadin and cerebellar peptides in children with autism

Nutr Neurosci. 2004 Jun;7(3):151-61.
Vojdani A, O'Bryan T, Green JA, Mccandless J, Woeller KN, Vojdani E, Nourian AA, Cooper EL.

Abstract
The mechanisms behind autoimmune reaction to nervous system antigens in autism are not understood. We assessed the reactivity of sera from 50 autism patients and 50 healthy controls to specific peptides from gliadin and the cerebellum. A significant percentage of autism patients showed elevations in antibodies against gliadin and cerebellar peptides simultaneously. For examining cross-reaction between dietary proteins and cerebellar antigens, antibodies were prepared in rabbits, and binding of rabbit anti-gliadin, anti-cerebellar peptides, anti-MBP, anti-milk, anti-egg, anti-soy and anti-corn to either gliadin- or cerebellar-antigen-coated wells was measured.

We conclude that a subgroup of patients with autism produce antibodies against Purkinje cells and gliadin peptides, which may be responsible for some of the neurological symptoms in autism.

In comparison to anti-gliadin peptide binding to gliadin peptide at 100%, the reaction of anti-cerebellar peptide to gliadin peptide was 22%, whereas the binding of anti-myelin basic protein (MBP), anti-milk, anti-egg and anti-soy to gliadin was less than 10%. Further examination of rabbit anti-gliadin (EQVPLVQQ) and anti-cerebellar (EDVPLLED) 8 amino acid (AA) peptides with human serum albumin (HSA) and an unrelated peptide showed no binding, but the reaction of these antibodies with both the cerebellar and gliadin peptides was greater than 60%. This cross-reaction was further confirmed by DOT-immunoblot and inhibition studies. We conclude that a subgroup of patients with autism produce antibodies against Purkinje cells and gliadin peptides, which may be responsible for some of the neurological symptoms in autism.

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Study identifies levels at which five foods may trigger allergic reactions

For people with food allergies, vague warnings on food products - such as "may contain nuts" - can be confusing; is the product safe to consume or not? In a new study, researchers claim to have identified the levels at which five common food allergens - peanut, hazelnut, celery, fish and shrimp - cause a reaction in only 10% of people who are allergic to them.

Around 90% of food allergies are caused by eight foods: milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat and soybeans. Peanuts are the most common trigger of food-allergic reactions in the US.

The research team - led by Prof. Clare Mills of the Institute of Inflammation and Repair at the University of Manchester in the UK - says they hope the findings will lead to improved allergy warnings on food products.

Approximately 15 million people in the US have food allergies, with children accounting for around 6 million of these cases.

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Is depression a kind of allergic reaction?

Caroline Williams
TheGuardian

Barely a week goes by without a celebrity "opening up" about their "battle with depression". This, apparently, is a brave thing to do because, despite all efforts to get rid of the stigma around depression, it is still seen as some kind of mental and emotional weakness.

But what if was nothing of the sort? What if it was a physical illness that just happens to make people feel pretty lousy? Would that make it less of a big deal to admit to? Could it even put a final nail in the coffin of the idea that depression is all in the mind?

"I don't even talk about it as a psychiatric condition any more," he says. "It does involve psychology, but it also involves equal parts of biology and physical health." - George Slavich, a clinical psychologist at the University of California in Los Angeles

The best candidate so far is inflammation - a part of the immune system that acts as a burglar alarm to close wounds and call other parts of the immune system into action. A family of proteins called cytokines sets off inflammation in the body, and switches the brain into sickness mode.

According to a growing number of scientists, this is exactly how we should be thinking about the condition. George Slavich, a clinical psychologist at the University of California in Los Angeles, has spent years studying depression, and has come to the conclusion that it has as much to do with the body as the mind. "I don't even talk about it as a psychiatric condition any more," he says. "It does involve psychology, but it also involves equal parts of biology and physical health."

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Risk of Eczema Decreased with Probiotics

Probiotics alter eczema risk among children with a genetic predisposition, a study epublished in August 2014 reports. According to The American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, eczema is the most common skin condition, especially in children. It affects one in five infants but only approximately one in fifty adults.

"This is the first study to show an effect of a probiotic on reducing eczema risk amongst those with particular eczema-associated genotypes. Our findings suggest that Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 may be particularly effective in preventing eczema in children with specific high risk genotypes."

The subjects included 331 children of European ancestry. The investigators genotyped 33 eczema susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eleven genes. The investigators categorized the subjects based on who carried a genetic variant that put them at a high risk of developing eczema. The researchers randomly assigned the children to receive Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis HN019, or placebo.

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In this issue:

logoResearch News
Immune response to dietary proteins, gliadin and cerebellar peptides in children with autism

Study identifies levels at which five foods may trigger allergic reactions

Is depression a kind of allergic reaction?

Risk of Eczema Decreased with Probiotics

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